IPR Glossary

This IPR glossary contains acronyms, terms and words, found in our website, related to the protection of industrial property rights. If you have questions about patenting, registration of trademarks or other matters related to the protection of industrial property rights, please send an e-mail to info@fspat.fi. Your questions will be passed to the right person. You may also contact our patent attorneys or trademark attorneys directly. Other contact information and, for example, information about exceptional office hours are also provided on our website.



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ACG is an acronym for the Anti-Counterfeiting Group. This anti-piracy organisation has over 200 business members in 30 countries. AIM stands for the Association des Industries de Marque, in English the European Brands Association. AIM has over 1800 business members.



AIPPI stands for the Association Internationale pour la Protection de la Propriete Intellectuelle. AIPPI is an international organisation that promotes the use of industrial property rights and cooperates with the authorities. The national Finnish chapter of AIPPI is the Finnish AIPPI Group. APRAM is an acronym for the Association des Praticiens du Droit des Marques et des Modeles. APRAM is a French association for intellectual property rights specialists.


African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (ARIPO) is a regional patenting system for English-speaking African countries. ARIPO was founded by the Lusaka Agreement in Zambia in 1976.
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Bolar provision


Bolar provision permits the manufacturers of generic pharmaceuticals to use the technology of a patented pharmaceutical to perform work that would assist in the marketing or regulatory approval of the generic product, while the patent is in force. This Bolar provision then allows the generic producer to market and manufacture their goods as soon as the patent expires. BSA is an acronym for the Business Software Alliance. BSA is an anti-piracy umbrella organization, with a focus on the fight against software piracy. BSA has members in over 80 countries.
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CEIPI stands for Centre d'Etudes Internationales de la Propriété Intellectuelle. CEIPI is an international institute located in Strasbourg. It offers training in the European patent law and practice for intellectual property specialists across the whole of Europe. CPC stands for the Community Patent Convention. The Community Patent Convention was signed in 1975 to harmonise patent practice in the EU countries. The purpose of the agreement was to make it possible to obtain a unitary patent in the entire EU area by a single Community patent application. The agreement has not yet (January 30, 2008) entered into force.



CPMT stands for the words China Patent Machine Translation system. In our pages the acronym refers to the Chinese search system allowing conducting searches in English in the patent batabase maintained by the Intellectual Property Office of China, where the publications are machine translated into English. CTM is an acronym for a Community Trademark, and it refers to a trademark protected by the Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (OHIM), or the Trademarks and Designs Registration Office of the European Union, and covering the entire European Union area. The term "EU trademark" is often used as a Finnish equivalent of the acronym CTM.
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DNS stands for the Domain Name System. DNS is a system that translates a human readable host name to a numerical internet address. The reverse query returns the name for the address. Term "domain" in our pages stands for the internet domain. The domain name is a defined label for a certain numerical internet address.
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The Eurasian Patent Convention is a regional patent application system of the former Soviet Union countries including Turkmenistan, Belarus, Tajikistan, Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrkyz Rebublic, Moldova and Armenia. ECTA is an acronym for the European Communities Trade Mark Association. ECTA is an organisation dedicated to the interests of trademark attorneys and other trademark lawyers and professionals practising in the area of the European Community.


EP attorney

EP stands for a European patent. For further information about European patent and European patent application see the FAQ page "Patent". A European Patent Attorney is a patent attorney registered on the list maintained by the European Patent Office. He or she is entitled to act as a professional representative before the EPO in matters concerning a European patent application or a European patent.



EPC stands for the European Patent Convention. The European Patent Convention was concluded in 1973 and it entered into force in 1977. The EPC is a centralised European patent application system that covers most European countries. EPC at Wikipedia. EPI stands for the Institute of Professional Representatives before the European Patent Office. Any person entered on the list of professional representatives maintained by the EPO is a member of the institute.



EPO stands for the European Patent Office. EPO is responsible for processing EP applications and granting EP patents.

EPO is also an acronym for the European Patent Organisation. The organs of the Organisation are the European Patent Office and the Administrative Council.
EQE stands for the European Qualifying Examination. It is a demanding examination for patent attorneys who wish to be accepted into the list of professional representatives kept by the EPO. Passing the examination gives a person the right to act as a professional representative in matters concerning an EP application and an EP patent.

EU trademark

The EU trademark is a trademark that is registered by the Trademarks and Designs Registration Office of the European Union (OHIM) and which is in force throughout the EU. An English-language acronym for the EU trademark is CTM.
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FACG is an acronym for the Finnish Anti-Counterfeiting Group. The aim of the group is to promote anti-piracy efforts, for example, providing information and training. The umbrella organisation of anti-piracy groups is GACG. FICPI stands for the Federation Internationale des Conseils en Propriete Industrielle. FICPI is an international organisation that promotes the interests of IPR attorneys serving in private practice. FICPI has as its members professionals from over 80 countries.



Family Online Safety Institute, or FOSI, is an American association that seeks to promote a safer Internet for children and to offer different practices for promoting online safety for children. Also see ICRA. FICORA stands for the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority. Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority for example helps to provide versatile, effective and secure electronic communications in Finland.
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GACG is an acronym for the Global Anti-Counterfeiting Group. GACG is an umbrella organisation of national anti-piracy groups. GRUR stands for the words "Gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht". GRUR is a German organisation that promotes the protection of industrial property rights.
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Hague agreement


The Hague system of international registration of industrial designs allows a design right to be protected in the countries party to the Hague Agreement by filing a single application with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Finland is not a member, but the European Community has joined the agreement on January 1, 2008. HPO is an acronym of the words Hungarian Patent Office. HPO is the Hungarian government office for the protection of intellectual property. HPO was established in 1896.
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ICRA (Internet Content Rating Association) is now part of the American Family Online Safety Institute. ICRA makes it possible to rate the content of Internet pages. The content provider gets a rating that can be linked to his/her Internet pages. The rating shows that the content of the pages is also suitable for children. FOSI and ICRA are non-profit organisations. IDN is an acronym of the words Internationalised Domain Name. For example, a domain name having non-ASCII characters such as å, ä or ö, is translated as IDN using special transcription. Since the domain name system (DNS) cannot use special characters, for example "forssén.eu" would be converted into "xn--Forssn-fva.eu". Then an application such as an Internet browser would display the IDN with the special character "é".



INTA is an acronym for the International Trademark Association. INTA is an international organisation dedicated to the promotion of fair and effective use of trademarks and other industrial property rights. It was founded as early as 1878. INTA has over 5000 members in more than 190 countries. The membership comprises trademark owners and trademark professionals. INPI is an acronym for Institut national de la propriété industrielle, which is the French National Institute of Industrial Property. You can find French Patent office web site from address http://www.inpi.fr.



IPC is an acronym for the International Patent Classification, which was established by the Strasbourg Agreement in 1971. The IPC provides for a hierarchical system of language independent symbols for the classification of patents and utility models according to the different areas of technology to which they pertain. IPR stands for the words "Intellectual Property Right(s)", or immaterial rights, or "intangible rights". Immaterial rights are generally divided into copyright rights and industrial property rights.


ITMA is an acronym for the Institute of Trade Mark Attorneys. ITMA is an association of trademark attorneys functioning in Great Britain. ITMA was founded in 1934.
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Keksintösäätiö, in English the Foundation for Finnish Inventions, is a private Finnish foundation that provides advisory, evaluation and financing services for private individuals and small enterprises to promote innovations and the exploitation of innovations. The main office is at Innopoli in Otaniemi, Espoo. In addition, the Foundation has agents at TE Centres, universities and colleges. KIPO is an abbreviation of Korean Intellectual Property Office. KIPO is the major governmental authority in charge of intellectual property matters in South Korea (Republic of Korea). KIPO was established in 1949.
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Locarno Agreement

London Agreement

The Locarno Agreement is an international agreement establishing a classification for designs. The Locarno Agreement comprises 32 main classes, 223 subclasses and 6250 categories. The Agreement entered into force in 1968. The London Agreement aims to reduce the costs of patenting in Europe by removing some of the national requirements for translations of EP patents. The Agreement entered into force in May 2008.
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Madrid System

The Madrid System consists of two agreements, the Madrid Agreement (1891) and the Madrid Protocol (1989). Finland is a party to the Madrid Protocol. The Madrid System makes it possible to obtain trademark protection in desired member states party to the Agreement by means of a single international trademark application filed with the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).
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Nice Agreement


The Nice Agreement covers, among other things, an international classification system of trademarks and service marks classifying the goods and services protected by a mark into goods classes 1-34 and service classes 35-45. NBPR refers to the National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland. NBPR is the patent authority of Finland. See acronym PRH.
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The African Intellectual Property Organisation, or OAPI, is a regional patenting system of French-speaking African states.


Oppedahl refers to the American patent agency of Oppedahl Patent Law Firm LLC, whose web pages offer basic information about industrial property rights, and an index of attorneys.
OHIM is an acronym for the Office of Harmonization for the Internal Market. OHIM is an office that maintains the trademark and design register of the European Community. The official Finnish-language name of OHIM is Sisämarkkinoilla toimiva yhdenmukaistamisvirasto (SMHV). The Office is often called the Trademarks and Designs Registration Office of the EU. The Office has five official working languages: English, Spanish, German, French and Italian. OHIM, OAMI, HABM, OHMI and UAMI are thus acronyms for the name of the Office in each language.
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Paris Convention


The Paris Convention concluded in 1883 defines, among other things, a priority and a priority year for patents, utility models, designs and trademarks. PPH is an acronym for the Patent Prosecution Highway. The PPH is a bilateral agreement between two patent offices, which permits each office to make use of the work previously done by the other office and reduce duplication. The system enables accelerated patent examination procedures to obtain corresponding patents faster and more efficiently.



PCT stands for the Patent Cooperation Treaty. PCT is an international agreement concluded in 1978 and providing procedures relating to the filing, handling and managing of patent applications. The treaty has members from more than 120 countries. For further information about PCT, please see our web page "patent" or the web pages of the National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland. PRH, or the National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland, is the patent authority of Finland. PRH serves as an office that registers industrial property rights and in which, for instance, patent, utility model, design and trademark applications are filed. The National Board of Patents and Registration of Finland was founded in 1942.



PIPERPAT or PIPERS refers to a patent agency operating in New Zealand and Australia. Piperpat maintains a comprehensive international index of attorneys. Their pages and index search are found at http://www.piperpat.com. PRV is an acronym for Patent- och registreringsverket or Swedish Patent and Registration office. PRV provides protection and exclusive rights for technological ideas, trademarks and industrial designs in Sweden.
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RCD, Registered Community Design, refers to a Community design, or an EU design, which has been registered at OHIM and which confers an exclusive right to the exploitation of the design and a right to prevent others from exploiting the design. A registered Community design is in force throughout the European Union in five-year renewal periods up to a maximum duration of 25 years. The acronym CD is also used of a registered Community design. RIAA stands for the Recording Industry Association of America. RIAA represents the interests of the recording industry in the U.S.A. RIAA is an American standard-creating and anti-piracy organisation.

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In our pages, acronym SIPO stands for the words State Intellectual Property Office of the Peoples Rebublic of China. SIPO refers to chinese intellectual property rights office. SIPO internet pages contain for example a link to the CPMT patent search. SMHV, or Sisämarkkinoilla toimiva yhdenmukaistamisvirasto (trademarks and designs) is better known by the name Trademarks and Designs Registration Office of the European Union or OHIM. The Office has registered EU trademarks in force in the entire EU area since 1996 and Community designs since 2003. The Office is located in Alicante, Spain.



The Association of Finnish Patent Attorneys (SPAY) is an association founded by professionals in the legal profession in 1928. Among other things, the Association oversees compliance with agents' ethics and safeguards the common professional interests of its membership. With a view to developing immaterial rights, the Association is cooperating closely with various authorities. STY is an acronym for the Finnish Association for Industrial Property Rights. STY aims to promote the development and application of industrial property rights in Finland. STY seeks to look after internationally Finland's interests in matters related to industrial property rights.
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TRIPS or TRIPS Agreement is an acronym for the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. The member states of the WTO must harmonize the national laws concerning industrial property rights and copyright rights to be in agreement with the TRIPS Agreement.

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UCD is stands for the words Unregistered Community Design and it refers to an unregistered Community design that provides protection only against direct copying, and it is in force only for three years. It can be difficult to prove the right to an unregistered Community design.

USPTO is an acronym for the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Its major functions are the examination and issuance of patents and the examination and registration of trademarks in the United States Of America
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Vienna Agreement


The Vienna Agreement establishes a classification of figurative trademarks. Images are classified according to 1-29 categories and their divisions and sections. For example, an image of a lion in a trademark belongs to an image class 3.1.1., category 3. animals, 1. quadrupeds, 1. lions. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is a globally networked multitechnological contract research organization that provides high-end technology solutions and innovation services.
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WIPO is an acronym for the World Intellectual Property Organization. WIPO is a special organization of the United Nations. WIPO's core areas include industrial property rights and copyright rights. WIPO has 183 member states. WTO is an acronym for the World Trade Organisation. WTO is an international organization that promotes trade policy cooperation. WTO aims to liberalise world trade.

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